A potential HIV epidemic among male street laborers in urban Vietnam
This book has been based on a real story about living experiences among socially marginalized groups, male street laborers in Vietnam. Most of them are migrants from rural to urban areas to earn their living. Because they have a limited socioeonomic background and have been engaged in a multiple number of risk behaviors, they are at high risk for HIV infection and other health problems. The findings provide information and evidence for initiating a viable social policy to protect these men from health problems.
A Study on Some Stochastic Models for HIV Infection and AIDS
In the study of HIV infection and its progress to AIDS the antigenic diversity of the invading antigen plays a vital role. The human immune system fails after a certain stage. The invading antigens namely the HIV develop stronger measures to suppress the human immune system and the antigenic diversity is one of the strategies adopted by the invading antigen. As and when the antigenic diversity crosses the threshold level the human immune system fails completely and the seroconversion occurs. There are very many situations in which this phenomenon occurs. Suitable stochastic models are developed by different authors to meet properly the situation. Using such models an attempt is made to estimate the likely time at which the seroconversion occurs.
Advanced Diagnostic Aids For Periodontal Disease
This book is about the current diagnostics aids used in dentistry for periodontal disease, the implementation of a dental health care delivery that utilizes expanded duty personnel. The emerging concept in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease precludes clinicians to examine periodontal structures more accurately in all dimensions. Analog two dimensional (2D) imaging used as an adjunct to periodontal manifestations could not contribute to this completely. Novel imaging modalities, available to date revealed the periodontium, three dimensionally thereby enabling periodontists for early diagnosis and better intervention. . A key step in diagnosis of a disease is to identify the causative microorganism. Advanced diagnostic aids are increasingly playing a more vital role in this process, both in identification and treatment of periodontal disease.
African Leaders and the Impact of their Actions in HIV/AIDS Awareness
This book is about the impact that African high profile figures have in HIV/AIDS awareness. It talks about the actions of various high profile figures in the wake of the epidemic, and how these actions are covered by the media and received by the public. Based on a case study that has a reference to two African Presidents: South Africa’s Jacob Zuma and Tanzania’s Jakaya Kikwete, it shows how the former stirred a lot of debate from his controversial remarks that taking a shower after unprotected sex minimised chances of contracting HIV, while spearhead an HIV testing campaign that did not get as extensive coverage. The book, therefore, raises some interesting concerns. While we know that the media likes reporting about actions of influential people and provides a platform for that, when these actions are controversial, then the coverage becomes huge. This could mean that while some high profile figures give out messages of denial in light of the epidemic, their actions, although...
An analysis of the management of HIV Mental illness comorbidity
AN ANALYSIS OF THE MANAGEMENT OF HIV-MENTAL ILLNESS COMORBIDITY AT THE PSYCHIATRIC UNIT OF THE DR GEORGE MUKHARI ACADEMIC HOSPITAL,SOUTH AFRICA BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has increased the lifespan of HIV-infected patients over recent decades. Consequently, a rise has been observed in the neuropsychiatric manifestations of HIV. Clinicians now face the challenge of managing HIV and mental illness (MI) comorbidity, requiring integration between mental health and general medical care. This study aimed to evaluate the inpatient management of HIV-MI comorbidity in a psychiatric unit. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted. Records of patients admitted to the unit with a diagnosis of HIV-MI comorbidity from June 2011 to June 2012 were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: The management of psychiatric disorders was excellent for all patients. However challenges were observed in HIV management.Generally, the coordination of care...
An investigation into a local Church''s Response to HIV in South Africa
The cure for HIV has still not been found. Thousands of people are still dying due to HIV related illnesses in the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. For victory against the pandemic to be won it is crucially important that every person, institution and organization engage in implementing effective response to HIV. In general the belief in God and adherence to religious teachings characterizes the majority of the people in Africa. Therefore religious institutions in Africa can play a significant role in the struggle against HIV partly because most of the people that are affected by HIV are within reach by the institutions. This book is based on research conducted in Sweetwaters, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2005. It analyses the extent to which a small local Church''s response to HIV was holistic and sheds light on the struggles that the particular Church was facing when responding to HIV. Community developers in Africa may find this book insightful...
Analysis of Toilet Seat Contamination by Trichomonas Vaginalis
Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is a sexually transmitted parasitic protozoon that lives in the female lower reproductive tract and the male urethra. It causes the sexually transmitted infection trichomoniasis; a disease infecting both males and females. TV mode of transmission has been primarily assumed to be via sexual intercourse. A number of studies as shown that there could be a non sexual means of transmission for instance via toilet seat. The parasite is known to increase the infected susceptibility of HIV-! virus and hence study of its transmission is very important.
ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS ON PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY
Over the last 25 years HIV/AIDs has been serious problem in the world in general and poor countries of the world in particular. Because it has drained the labour power could be changed to productive, shared budgets for other development activities and so on.In order to at least minimize the problem many organizations including government and non government have been participated to prevent and control it. However, the effort has not yet shown the fruit so far. As part of problem solving, this book tried to give suggestions and means to solve the problems has been created by HIV/AIDs on marriage issues, contraceptive aspects, and induced abortion as well as breast feeding. Thus,the book may provide benefit to those working on reproductive health issues, institutes working on marriage and people working on the prevention of transmission of disease from mother to child
Application of Causal Inference Methods to Improve Treatment of HIV Infection
Advances in causal inference have improved the ability of statistical methods to answer practical questions in epidemiology and clinical research. In particular, the counterfactual framework and marginal structural models have provided the basis for practical and theoretical advances in the statistical estimation of causal parameters. The dissertation focuses on the development and application of statistical methods based on the counterfactual framework. Three methods are presented and each is applied to answer a practical research question. The presentation of each method is aimed at a distinct audience: clinicians, epidemiologists, and statisticians, respectively. The unifying theme is the use of state-of-the-art causal inference methods to answer questions surrounding the treatment of antiretroviral resistant HIV infection. Specific topics include use of point treatment marginal structural models to investigate antiretroviral salvage strategies, use of history-adjusted marginal...
Assessment of HIV status disclosure among PLWHA in Tano North District
Despite the numerous benefits of HIV- positive status disclosure, studies have shown that the rates of disclosure among developing world are notably lower ranging from 16.7% to 86% compared to rates reported from the developed world (42% to 100%) (WHO, 2004). This research was a cross sectional study designed to determine the proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS who have disclosed their HIV-positive status to their sexual partners/family members and the reasons for non-disclosure in the Tano North District. Systematic random sampling method was used to draw 228 PLWHA for the study. The data collection tool was a structured questionnaire. Cross tabulations were done to determine the relationship between specific outcome variables and their predictors of disclosure. Chi-square tests were calculated and p-values of less than 0.05 were accepted as being statistical significant for all associations. The findings revealed that the proportion of HIV positive status disclosure to sexual...
Attachment Styles and HIV-Risk Behavior
Despite decades of HIV related safer sex education a number of men who have sex with men continue to engage in sexual risk behaviors and remain at risk for contracting HIV. Research has shown significant correlations between various risk factors and HIV-risk behaviors, but the exact nature of the relationship has remained unexplained. Volker Schuetz explores in his book John Bowlby''s construct of attachment as an underlying factor that could explain why some men continue to engage in sexual risk behaviors, such as unprotected anal intercourse, despite knowledge of the risk. After a thorough overview and integration of the attachment and HIV-risk behavior literature, Schuetz takes the reader into a fascinating, deeper exploration of the question how the relationship between infant and caregiver (attachment) not only influences adult romantic relationships but also could bear the roots for the underlying reason for some men to engage in unsafe sex. This book is a must read for...
Audio Visual Aids Physical Science Education
This book provides an essential resource for the better knowledge about the use of Audio-Visual Aids in Physical Science Education. It is useful to teachers to maintain the level of attention and motivation ie. Oral to visual, oral to oral-visual and visual to oral-visual. Sensory aids help the teachers to arrange more effective environments for learning. Visual aids like chalkboard, bulletin board, magnetic board, flannel board, chart, flash cards, graph, poster, models and diorama (non projected aids) and filmstrips, slides, OHP sheets (Projected aids) help the imaginative teachers to communicate the concepts clearly. Aural aids like radio and tape-recorder and audio-visual aids like computer, TV and multimedia help the teachers in achieving teaching excellence.
Barriers of HIV/AIDS Service Uptake by female sex workers
Analysis on the barriers to access services and retention in care demonstrated that the negative attitude of health care provider is one of the reasons explaining the poor service provided to sex workers at the partner health centre. Other motive for the high attrition rates is the existing weak referral system between the HAPP Drop-In-Centre and the partner health centre. A stronger referral system from the drop-in-centre to treatment services is needed. A strong bond should be developed between HAPP Drop-In-Centre and health centres that provide clinical treatment and ART. This is particularly needed as CBOs are currently not authorized to provide HIV treatment services in Cameroon. In conclusion, barriers faced by sex workers can lead to low uptake of HIV prevention, care and support services, even when these services are provided for free. This will affect not only the outcomes of sex workers individually, but would increase the transmissibility of HIV in the community.
Blood Ties: The Stories of Five Positive Women Salli Trathen This collection presents the life stories of five women who share one crucial bond-they have been diagnosed HIV-positive. The book raises issues such as the social impact of HIV/AIDS; how people, particularly women, are marginalized as a result; facing personal fears about death and life values; and dealing with families and friends. The stories show the diversity of the five women's experiences and the ways they have each dealt with these issues.
Children''s Right to HIV Information in Zambia
The book grapples with the topical theme of HIV & AIDS in sub- Saharan Africa, in a case study of two Catholic schools in Zambia. It explores factors which conditioned children''s rights to access school-based HIV education. The book specifically explores what the Catholic schools were doing vis-a-vis HIV education. The author argues that the Catholic schools in Zambia have been casual vis-a-vis implementing the Ministry''s HIV education programme in their curricular largely due to the Ministry''s circular focus on condom use as a preventive measure. The Catholic schools have been reluctant to depart from the Catholic Church''s moral insistence on abstinence and fidelity. It has refused to yield on this moral aspect which it sees as its cardinal duty to humanity. Overall, the author argues that the Ministry of Education (Zambia), schools, Catholic Church and parents have failed the pupils with regard to HIV education due to their respective lukewarm approach to HIV ...
Client satisfaction with HIV treatment services in Bamenda, Cameroon
Clients have explicit desires or requests for services when visiting hospitals; inadequate discovery of their needs may result in dissatisfaction. Patient satisfaction influences retention in HIV care, adherence to HAART and serves as determinant to HIV suppression. This study’s objectives were to quantify clients’ satisfaction with HIV services in Bamenda and determine relationship between satisfaction and clients’ socio-demographic/structural characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted on HIV-positive patients followed-up in the Bamenda Regional Hospital treatment centre between July and August 2014. Data was collected on client’s level of satisfaction to staff-patient-communication, staff attitudes, privacy and confidentiality and staffing and amenities situations in the hospital. Collected data was analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.4 and clients’ satisfaction measured using frequencies and percentages. This book thus presents results of the predictors of patient...