(Не)совершенная случайность. Как случай управляет нашей жизнью Леонард Млодинов В книге «(Не)совершенная случайность. Как случай управляет нашей жизнью» Млодинов запросто знакомит всех желающих с теорией вероятностей, теорией случайных блужданий, научной и прикладной статистикой, историей развития этих всепроникающих теорий, а также с тем, какое значение случай, закономерность и неизбежная путаница между ними имеют в нашей повседневной жизни.
Эта книга – отличный способ тряхнуть стариной и освежить в памяти кое-что из курса высшей математики, истории естественнонаучного знания, астрономии и статистики для тех, кто изучал эти дивные дисциплины в вузах; понятно и доступно изложенные основы теории вероятностей и ее применимости в житейских обстоятельствах (с многочисленными примерами) для тех, кому не посчастливилось изучать их специально; наконец, профессиональный и дружелюбный подсказчик грызущим гранит соответствующих наук в данный момент.
1000 контрольных и проверочных работ по математике для начальной школы Отсутствует Данное универсальное пособие окажет неоценимую услугу не только учащимся начальных классов и учителям, но и родителям, занимающимся со своими детьми самостоятельно. Книга включает в себя большое количество контрольных и проверочных работ по математике, которые помогут учащимся проверить и закрепить все необходимые знания и навыки. Весь материал в книге дается в строгом соответствии с требованиями школьной программы. Контрольные и проверочные работы сгруппированы по разделам, сложность которых увеличивается по мере изучения предмета. Задания в них интересны и разнообразны. Они включают в себя примеры, задачи, уравнения – все то, что необходимо знать учащимся начальной школы.
3D Shape Analysis. Fundamentals, Theory, and Applications Hamid Laga An in-depth description of the state-of-the-art of 3D shape analysis techniques and their applications This book discusses the different topics that come under the title of «3D shape analysis». It covers the theoretical foundations and the major solutions that have been presented in the literature. It also establishes links between solutions proposed by different communities that studied 3D shape, such as mathematics and statistics, medical imaging, computer vision, and computer graphics. The first part of 3D Shape Analysis: Fundamentals, Theory, and Applications provides a review of the background concepts such as methods for the acquisition and representation of 3D geometries, and the fundamentals of geometry and topology. It specifically covers stereo matching, structured light, and intrinsic vs. extrinsic properties of shape. Parts 2 and 3 present a range of mathematical and algorithmic tools (which are used for e.g., global descriptors, keypoint detectors, local feature descriptors, and algorithms) that are commonly used for the detection, registration, recognition, classification, and retrieval of 3D objects. Both also place strong emphasis on recent techniques motivated by the spread of commodity devices for 3D acquisition. Part 4 demonstrates the use of these techniques in a selection of 3D shape analysis applications. It covers 3D face recognition, object recognition in 3D scenes, and 3D shape retrieval. It also discusses examples of semantic applications and cross domain 3D retrieval, i.e. how to retrieve 3D models using various types of modalities, e.g. sketches and/or images. The book concludes with a summary of the main ideas and discussions of the future trends. 3D Shape Analysis: Fundamentals, Theory, and Applications is an excellent reference for graduate students, researchers, and professionals in different fields of mathematics, computer science, and engineering. It is also ideal for courses in computer vision and computer graphics, as well as for those seeking 3D industrial/commercial solutions.
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A Career in Statistics. Beyond the Numbers Hahn Gerald J. A valuable guide to a successful career as a statistician A Career in Statistics: Beyond the Numbers prepares readers for careers in statistics by emphasizing essential concepts and practices beyond the technical tools provided in standard courses and texts. This insider's guide from internationally recognized applied statisticians helps readers decide whether a career in statistics is right for them, provides hands-on guidance on how to prepare for such a career, and shows how to succeed on the job. The book provides non-technical guidance for a successful career. The authors' extensive industrial experience is supplemented by insights from contributing authors from government and academia, Carol Joyce Blumberg, Leonard M. Gaines, Lynne B. Hare, William Q. Meeker, and Josef Schmee. Following an introductory chapter that provides an overview of the field, the authors discuss the various dimensions of a career in applied statistics in three succinct parts: The Work of a Statistician describes the day-to-day activities of applied statisticians in business and industry, official government, and various other application areas, highlighting the work environment and major on-the-job challenges Preparing for a Successful Career in Statistics describes the personal traits that characterize successful statisticians, the education that they need to acquire, and approaches for securing the right job Building a Successful Career as a Statistician offers practical guidance for addressing key challenges that statisticians face on the job, such as project initiation and execution, effective communication, publicizing successes, ethical considerations, and gathering good data; alternative career paths are also described The book concludes with an in-depth examination of careers for statisticians in academia as well as tips to help them stay on top of their field throughout their careers. Each chapter includes thought-provoking discussion questions and a Major Takeaways section that outlines key concepts. Real-world examples illustrate key points, and an FTP site provides additional information on selected topics. A Career in Statistics is an invaluable guide for individuals who are considering or have decided on a career in statistics as well as for statisticians already on the job who want to accelerate their path to success. It also serves as a suitable book for courses on statistical consulting, statistical practice, and statistics in the workplace at the undergraduate and graduate levels.
A Classical Introduction to Galois Theory Stephen Newman C. Explore the foundations and modern applications of Galois theory Galois theory is widely regarded as one of the most elegant areas of mathematics. A Classical Introduction to Galois Theory develops the topic from a historical perspective, with an emphasis on the solvability of polynomials by radicals. The book provides a gradual transition from the computational methods typical of early literature on the subject to the more abstract approach that characterizes most contemporary expositions. The author provides an easily-accessible presentation of fundamental notions such as roots of unity, minimal polynomials, primitive elements, radical extensions, fixed fields, groups of automorphisms, and solvable series. As a result, their role in modern treatments of Galois theory is clearly illuminated for readers. Classical theorems by Abel, Galois, Gauss, Kronecker, Lagrange, and Ruffini are presented, and the power of Galois theory as both a theoretical and computational tool is illustrated through: A study of the solvability of polynomials of prime degree Development of the theory of periods of roots of unity Derivation of the classical formulas for solving general quadratic, cubic, and quartic polynomials by radicals Throughout the book, key theorems are proved in two ways, once using a classical approach and then again utilizing modern methods. Numerous worked examples showcase the discussed techniques, and background material on groups and fields is provided, supplying readers with a self-contained discussion of the topic. A Classical Introduction to Galois Theory is an excellent resource for courses on abstract algebra at the upper-undergraduate level. The book is also appealing to anyone interested in understanding the origins of Galois theory, why it was created, and how it has evolved into the discipline it is today.
A First Course in Mathematical Logic and Set Theory Michael O'Leary L. A mathematical introduction to the theory and applications of logic and set theory with an emphasis on writing proofs Highlighting the applications and notations of basic mathematical concepts within the framework of logic and set theory, A First Course in Mathematical Logic and Set Theory introduces how logic is used to prepare and structure proofs and solve more complex problems. The book begins with propositional logic, including two-column proofs and truth table applications, followed by first-order logic, which provides the structure for writing mathematical proofs. Set theory is then introduced and serves as the basis for defining relations, functions, numbers, mathematical induction, ordinals, and cardinals. The book concludes with a primer on basic model theory with applications to abstract algebra. A First Course in Mathematical Logic and Set Theory also includes: Section exercises designed to show the interactions between topics and reinforce the presented ideas and concepts Numerous examples that illustrate theorems and employ basic concepts such as Euclid’s lemma, the Fibonacci sequence, and unique factorization Coverage of important theorems including the well-ordering theorem, completeness theorem, compactness theorem, as well as the theorems of Löwenheim–Skolem, Burali-Forti, Hartogs, Cantor–Schröder–Bernstein, and König An excellent textbook for students studying the foundations of mathematics and mathematical proofs, A First Course in Mathematical Logic and Set Theory is also appropriate for readers preparing for careers in mathematics education or computer science. In addition, the book is ideal for introductory courses on mathematical logic and/or set theory and appropriate for upper-undergraduate transition courses with rigorous mathematical reasoning involving algebra, number theory, or analysis.
A First Course in Probability and Markov Chains Poggiolini Laura Provides an introduction to basic structures of probability with a view towards applications in information technology A First Course in Probability and Markov Chains presents an introduction to the basic elements in probability and focuses on two main areas. The first part explores notions and structures in probability, including combinatorics, probability measures, probability distributions, conditional probability, inclusion-exclusion formulas, random variables, dispersion indexes, independent random variables as well as weak and strong laws of large numbers and central limit theorem. In the second part of the book, focus is given to Discrete Time Discrete Markov Chains which is addressed together with an introduction to Poisson processes and Continuous Time Discrete Markov Chains. This book also looks at making use of measure theory notations that unify all the presentation, in particular avoiding the separate treatment of continuous and discrete distributions. A First Course in Probability and Markov Chains: Presents the basic elements of probability. Explores elementary probability with combinatorics, uniform probability, the inclusion-exclusion principle, independence and convergence of random variables. Features applications of Law of Large Numbers. Introduces Bernoulli and Poisson processes as well as discrete and continuous time Markov Chains with discrete states. Includes illustrations and examples throughout, along with solutions to problems featured in this book. The authors present a unified and comprehensive overview of probability and Markov Chains aimed at educating engineers working with probability and statistics as well as advanced undergraduate students in sciences and engineering with a basic background in mathematical analysis and linear algebra.
A General Introduction to Data Analytics Andre Carvalho A guide to the principles and methods of data analysis that does not require knowledge of statistics or programming A General Introduction to Data Analytics is an essential guide to understand and use data analytics. This book is written using easy-to-understand terms and does not require familiarity with statistics or programming. The authors—noted experts in the field—highlight an explanation of the intuition behind the basic data analytics techniques. The text also contains exercises and illustrative examples. Thought to be easily accessible to non-experts, the book provides motivation to the necessity of analyzing data. It explains how to visualize and summarize data, and how to find natural groups and frequent patterns in a dataset. The book also explores predictive tasks, be them classification or regression. Finally, the book discusses popular data analytic applications, like mining the web, information retrieval, social network analysis, working with text, and recommender systems. The learning resources offer: A guide to the reasoning behind data mining techniques A unique illustrative example that extends throughout all the chapters Exercises at the end of each chapter and larger projects at the end of each of the text’s two main parts Together with these learning resources, the book can be used in a 13-week course guide, one chapter per course topic. The book was written in a format that allows the understanding of the main data analytics concepts by non-mathematicians, non-statisticians and non-computer scientists interested in getting an introduction to data science. A General Introduction to Data Analytics is a basic guide to data analytics written in highly accessible terms.
A History of Mathematics Carl Boyer B. The updated new edition of the classic and comprehensive guide to the history of mathematics For more than forty years, A History of Mathematics has been the reference of choice for those looking to learn about the fascinating history of humankind’s relationship with numbers, shapes, and patterns. This revised edition features up-to-date coverage of topics such as Fermat’s Last Theorem and the Poincaré Conjecture, in addition to recent advances in areas such as finite group theory and computer-aided proofs. Distills thousands of years of mathematics into a single, approachable volume Covers mathematical discoveries, concepts, and thinkers, from Ancient Egypt to the present Includes up-to-date references and an extensive chronological table of mathematical and general historical developments. Whether you're interested in the age of Plato and Aristotle or Poincaré and Hilbert, whether you want to know more about the Pythagorean theorem or the golden mean, A History of Mathematics is an essential reference that will help you explore the incredible history of mathematics and the men and women who created it.
A Primer on Experiments with Mixtures John Cornell A. The concise yet authoritative presentation of key techniques for basic mixtures experiments Inspired by the author's bestselling advanced book on the topic, A Primer on Experiments with Mixtures provides an introductory presentation of the key principles behind experimenting with mixtures. Outlining useful techniques through an applied approach with examples from real research situations, the book supplies a comprehensive discussion of how to design and set up basic mixture experiments, then analyze the data and draw inferences from results. Drawing from his extensive experience teaching the topic at various levels, the author presents the mixture experiments in an easy-to-follow manner that is void of unnecessary formulas and theory. Succinct presentations explore key methods and techniques for carrying out basic mixture experiments, including: Designs and models for exploring the entire simplex factor space, with coverage of simplex-lattice and simplex-centroid designs, canonical polynomials, the plotting of individual residuals, and axial designs Multiple constraints on the component proportions in the form of lower and/or upper bounds, introducing L-Pseudocomponents, multicomponent constraints, and multiple lattice designs for major and minor component classifications Techniques for analyzing mixture data such as model reduction and screening components, as well as additional topics such as measuring the leverage of certain design points Models containing ratios of the components, Cox's mixture polynomials, and the fitting of a slack variable model A review of least squares and the analysis of variance for fitting data Each chapter concludes with a summary and appendices with details on the technical aspects of the material. Throughout the book, exercise sets with selected answers allow readers to test their comprehension of the material, and References and Recommended Reading sections outline further resources for study of the presented topics. A Primer on Experiments with Mixtures is an excellent book for one-semester courses on mixture designs and can also serve as a supplement for design of experiments courses at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also a suitable reference for practitioners and researchers who have an interest in experiments with mixtures and would like to learn more about the related mixture designs and models.
A Panorama of Statistics. Perspectives, Puzzles and Paradoxes in Statistics Peter Petocz A Panorama of Statistics: Perspectives, Puzzles and Paradoxes in Statistics Eric Sowey, School of Economics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Peter Petocz, Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia This book is a stimulating panoramic tour – quite different from a textbook journey – of the world of statistics in both its theory and practice, for teachers, students and practitioners. At each stop on the tour, the authors investigate unusual and quirky aspects of statistics, highlighting historical, biographical and philosophical dimensions of this field of knowledge. Each chapter opens with perspectives on its theme, often from several points of view. Five original and thought-provoking questions follow. These aim at widening readers’ knowledge and deepening their insight. Scattered among the questions are entertaining puzzles to solve and tantalising paradoxes to explain. Readers can compare their own statistical discoveries with the authors’ detailed answers to all the questions. The writing is lively and inviting, the ideas are rewarding, and the material is extensively cross-referenced. A Panorama of Statistics: Leads readers to discover the fascinations of statistics. Is an enjoyable companion to an undergraduate statistics textbook. Is an enriching source of knowledge for statistics teachers and practitioners. Is unique among statistics books today for its memorable content and engaging style. Lending itself equally to reading through and to dipping into, A Panorama of Statistics will surprise teachers, students and practitioners by the variety of ways in which statistics can capture and hold their interest.
A Practical Guide to Data Mining for Business and Industry Ahlemeyer-Stubbe Andrea Data mining is well on its way to becoming a recognized discipline in the overlapping areas of IT, statistics, machine learning, and AI. Practical Data Mining for Business presents a user-friendly approach to data mining methods, covering the typical uses to which it is applied. The methodology is complemented by case studies to create a versatile reference book, allowing readers to look for specific methods as well as for specific applications. The book is formatted to allow statisticians, computer scientists, and economists to cross-reference from a particular application or method to sectors of interest.
A Practical Introduction to Index Numbers Rob O'Neill This book provides an introduction to index numbers for statisticians, economists and numerate members of the public. It covers the essential basics, mixing theoretical aspects with practical techniques to give a balanced and accessible introduction to the subject. The concepts are illustrated by exploring the construction and use of the Consumer Prices Index which is arguably the most important of all official statistics in the UK. The book also considers current issues and developments in the field including the use of large-scale price transaction data. A Practical Introduction to Index Numbers will be the ideal accompaniment for students taking the index number components of the Royal Statistical Society Ordinary and Higher Certificate exams; it provides suggested routes through the book for students, and sets of exercises with solutions.
A Signal Theoretic Introduction to Random Processes Roy Howard M. A fresh introduction to random processes utilizing signal theory By incorporating a signal theory basis, A Signal Theoretic Introduction to Random Processes presents a unique introduction to random processes with an emphasis on the important random phenomena encountered in the electronic and communications engineering field. The strong mathematical and signal theory basis provides clarity and precision in the statement of results. The book also features: A coherent account of the mathematical fundamentals and signal theory that underpin the presented material Unique, in-depth coverage of material not typically found in introductory books Emphasis on modeling and notation that facilitates development of random process theory Coverage of the prototypical random phenomena encountered in electrical engineering Detailed proofs of results A related website with solutions to the problems found at the end of each chapter A Signal Theoretic Introduction to Random Processes is a useful textbook for upper-undergraduate and graduate-level courses in applied mathematics as well as electrical and communications engineering departments. The book is also an excellent reference for research engineers and scientists who need to characterize random phenomena in their research.
Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS Thomas O'Gorman W. Provides the tools needed to successfully perform adaptive tests across a broad range of datasets Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS illustrates the power of adaptive tests and showcases their ability to adjust the testing method to suit a particular set of data. The book utilizes state-of-the-art software to demonstrate the practicality and benefits for data analysis in various fields of study. Beginning with an introduction, the book moves on to explore the underlying concepts of adaptive tests, including: Smoothing methods and normalizing transformations Permutation tests with linear methods Applications of adaptive tests Multicenter and cross-over trials Analysis of repeated measures data Adaptive confidence intervals and estimates Throughout the book, numerous figures illustrate the key differences among traditional tests, nonparametric tests, and adaptive tests. R and SAS software packages are used to perform the discussed techniques, and the accompanying datasets are available on the book's related website. In addition, exercises at the end of most chapters enable readers to analyze the presented datasets by putting new concepts into practice. Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS is an insightful reference for professionals and researchers working with statistical methods across a variety of fields including the biosciences, pharmacology, and business. The book also serves as a valuable supplement for courses on regression analysis and adaptive analysis at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels.
Advanced Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods. Learning from Past Samples Faming Liang Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are now an indispensable tool in scientific computing. This book discusses recent developments of MCMC methods with an emphasis on those making use of past sample information during simulations. The application examples are drawn from diverse fields such as bioinformatics, machine learning, social science, combinatorial optimization, and computational physics. Key Features: Expanded coverage of the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo and dynamic weighting algorithms that are essentially immune to local trap problems. A detailed discussion of the Monte Carlo Metropolis-Hastings algorithm that can be used for sampling from distributions with intractable normalizing constants. Up-to-date accounts of recent developments of the Gibbs sampler. Comprehensive overviews of the population-based MCMC algorithms and the MCMC algorithms with adaptive proposals. This book can be used as a textbook or a reference book for a one-semester graduate course in statistics, computational biology, engineering, and computer sciences. Applied or theoretical researchers will also find this book beneficial.
Advanced Analysis of Variance Chihiro Hirotsu Introducing a revolutionary new model for the statistical analysis of experimental data In this important book, internationally acclaimed statistician, Chihiro Hirotsu, goes beyond classical analysis of variance (ANOVA) model to offer a unified theory and advanced techniques for the statistical analysis of experimental data. Dr. Hirotsu introduces the groundbreaking concept of advanced analysis of variance (AANOVA) and explains how the AANOVA approach exceeds the limitations of ANOVA methods to allow for global reasoning utilizing special methods of simultaneous inference leading to individual conclusions. Focusing on normal, binomial, and categorical data, Dr. Hirotsu explores ANOVA theory and practice and reviews current developments in the field. He then introduces three new advanced approaches, namely: testing for equivalence and non-inferiority; simultaneous testing for directional (monotonic or restricted) alternatives and change-point hypotheses; and analyses emerging from categorical data. Using real-world examples, he shows how these three recognizable families of problems have important applications in most practical activities involving experimental data in an array of research areas, including bioequivalence, clinical trials, industrial experiments, pharmaco-statistics, and quality control, to name just a few. • Written in an expository style which will encourage readers to explore applications for AANOVA techniques in their own research • Focuses on dealing with real data, providing real-world examples drawn from the fields of statistical quality control, clinical trials, and drug testing • Describes advanced methods developed and refined by the author over the course of his long career as research engineer and statistician • Introduces advanced technologies for AANOVA data analysis that build upon the basic ANOVA principles and practices Introducing a breakthrough approach to statistical analysis which overcomes the limitations of the ANOVA model, Advanced Analysis of Variance is an indispensable resource for researchers and practitioners working in fields within which the statistical analysis of experimental data is a crucial research component. Chihiro Hirotsu is a Senior Researcher at the Collaborative Research Center, Meisei University, and Professor Emeritus at the University of Tokyo. He is a fellow of the American Statistical Association, an elected member of the International Statistical Institute, and he has been awarded the Japan Statistical Society Prize (2005) and the Ouchi Prize (2006). His work has been published in Biometrika, Biometrics, and Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, among other premier research journals.
Advances in DEA Theory and Applications. With Extensions to Forecasting Models Kaoru Tone A key resource and framework for assessing the performance of competing entities, including forecasting models Advances in DEA Theory and Applications provides a much-needed framework for assessing the performance of competing entities with special emphasis on forecasting models. It helps readers to determine the most appropriate methodology in order to make the most accurate decisions for implementation. Written by a noted expert in the field, this text provides a review of the latest advances in DEA theory and applications to the field of forecasting. Designed for use by anyone involved in research in the field of forecasting or in another application area where forecasting drives decision making, this text can be applied to a wide range of contexts, including education, health care, banking, armed forces, auditing, market research, retail outlets, organizational effectiveness, transportation, public housing, and manufacturing. This vital resource: Explores the latest developments in DEA frameworks for the performance evaluation of entities such as public or private organizational branches or departments, economic sectors, technologies, and stocks Presents a novel area of application for DEA; namely, the performance evaluation of forecasting models Promotes the use of DEA to assess the performance of forecasting models in a wide area of applications Provides rich, detailed examples and case studies Advances in DEA Theory and Applications includes information on a balanced benchmarking tool that is designed to help organizations examine their assumptions about their productivity and performance.
Advances in Heavy Tailed Risk Modeling. A Handbook of Operational Risk Pavel Shevchenko V. A cutting-edge guide for the theories, applications, and statistical methodologies essential to heavy tailed risk modeling Focusing on the quantitative aspects of heavy tailed loss processes in operational risk and relevant insurance analytics, Advances in Heavy Tailed Risk Modeling: A Handbook of Operational Risk presents comprehensive coverage of the latest research on the theories and applications in risk measurement and modeling techniques. Featuring a unique balance of mathematical and statistical perspectives, the handbook begins by introducing the motivation for heavy tailed risk processes in high consequence low frequency loss modeling. With a companion, Fundamental Aspects of Operational Risk and Insurance Analytics: A Handbook of Operational Risk, the book provides a complete framework for all aspects of operational risk management and includes: Clear coverage on advanced topics such as splice loss models, extreme value theory, heavy tailed closed form loss distributional approach models, flexible heavy tailed risk models, risk measures, and higher order asymptotic approximations of risk measures for capital estimation An exploration of the characterization and estimation of risk and insurance modelling, which includes sub-exponential models, alpha-stable models, and tempered alpha stable models An extended discussion of the core concepts of risk measurement and capital estimation as well as the details on numerical approaches to evaluation of heavy tailed loss process model capital estimates Numerous detailed examples of real-world methods and practices of operational risk modeling used by both financial and non-financial institutions Advances in Heavy Tailed Risk Modeling: A Handbook of Operational Risk is an excellent reference for risk management practitioners, quantitative analysts, financial engineers, and risk managers. The book is also a useful handbook for graduate-level courses on heavy tailed processes, advanced risk management, and actuarial science.